General information about Egypt

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General information about the country

Egypt is the official name of the Arab Republic of Egypt. The state is located in the northeastern part of Africa and on the Sinai Peninsula. It has borders with Israel, the Palestinian National Authority (Gaza Strip), Sudan and Libya.

In the north, the territory is washed by the waters of the Mediterranean Sea, in the east by the Red Sea. Both seas are connected by an artificially constructed canal.

State structure

Egypt is a republic. The head of state is the President. The head of Government is the Prime Minister. The highest legislative body is the bicameral National Assembly.

On January 29, 2011, as a result of popular protests and armed clashes allegedly organized by the Egyptian opposition, the post of Vice-president, de facto abolished in 1981, was revived, to which the former head of Egyptian intelligence Omar Suleiman was appointed. On February 11, 2011, President Hosni Mubarak transferred power to the Supreme Military Council.


The spoken language in Egypt is one of the Arabic dialects, the official one is the so-called "high" Arabic. Arabs write from right to left. But the numbers are written and read from left to right. Many Egyptians, especially in the resort areas, can speak or at least understand English, and sometimes French. Street designations, names of establishments are very often duplicated in Latin.


94% of the population profess Sunni Islam. In small numbers there are also adherents of the Coptic and Greek Orthodox Churches, the Catholic Church. Officially banned radical Islamist movements are quite strong in Egypt. Problems on religious grounds in Egypt are quite rare, but still sometimes happen: on January 1, 2011, a terrorist attack was committed in Alexandria during the New Year's Liturgy in a Coptic church — a bomb exploded, killing more than 20 people, more than 100 people were injured.

The basis of secular legislation in Egypt is formed by a set of norms of Muslim law — Sharia, which, however, operates in a relaxed form.


The population is 80.5 million (2010, 16th place in the world).

The overwhelming majority of the Egyptian population (about 99%) are Arabs, Bedouins and Berbers. The remaining 1% consists of Greeks, Nubians, Armenians and some other Europeans (mainly Italians and French).

The urban population is 45%. The population density is 74.6 people/km.sq. (for comparison in Russia - 8.4 people/km.sq.).

Weather, tourist seasons

Most of Egypt lies within the Sahara Desert, therefore, the climate of Egypt, in general, is subtropical and tropical, with characteristic significant fluctuations in daily temperature. Depending on the time of year and location, the weather can vary significantly. However, the weather in Egypt throughout the year is quite suitable for a beach holiday.

Conventionally, the seasons in Egypt can be divided into "hot" (from March to October) and "cool" (from November to the end of March).

From March to May, a hot dusty wind blows from the desert, which brings with it sandstorms, atmospheric pressure drops, followed by an increase in temperature. The "hot" season begins. It is very sultry, the temperature can rise to +50C in places in the shade, but it gets cooler in the evening, the daily temperature drops are very high. On the seas and coasts, daily and seasonal temperature differences are less.

In the "cool" season, daytime temperatures usually vary between 20-25C. The nights are cold, the average temperature is +10C, and mild frosts up to - 5C are possible in deserts.

The best time to visit Egypt depends on which part of the country you are going to visit. But, in general, the most favorable tourist season in the country lasts from December to February. During the "low" season (from June to August), due to the unbearable heat, there is an outflow of tourists and a drop in hotel prices, especially in the center of the country, far from the coast. There are quite a lot of tourists on the coast even during this period.

Time in Egypt

The time in Egypt lags behind Moscow time by -1 hour in winter and -2 hours in summer.

Egypt switches to daylight saving time on the last Thursday of April at 01:00 am Egyptian time. The return to winter time takes place on the last Thursday of September.

Current time in Egypt: