Medical safety during the journey, part 3. Snakes, Scorpions, mosquitoes and other reptiles
The snake bites
According to official figures in the world there are more than 2,500 species, of which about 700 are poisonous. Every year from poisonous snake bites dies at 100 thousand people. Of course most of the victims – those who daily live and work in areas where poisonous snakes are part of the local fauna, but also of careless tourists frequent sad occasions. Of course, if you're not wild, inhabited place even in the most exotic locations, a chance to meet the snake is minimal. But if you plan on traveling through the jungle, deserts and rivers, you need to be on the alert.
To list all 700 species of poisonous snakes we of course will not. The most dangerous bites: the Central Asian Cobra, Viper the carpet. Other species of snakes, particularly vipers and Copperhead, are less dangerous. After their bites deaths are rare, but sometimes develop serious complications.
Rules of conduct when meeting with a snake:
- Always look carefully where you step, sit or lie down. When you go to bed, try to isolate yourself from the environment (tightly close doors, Windows, shawl, sleeping bag).
- Never put your hand into holes or dark places where a snake can hide.
- If possible, avoid walking in tall grass.
- Try not to walk around at night in the habitats of snakes. Snakes are especially active at night, so go hunting.
- In places where many snakes, always wear shoes made of heavy leather, and the best - high boots. Tight pants in some cases, also can save you from the bite.
- Never pick up a snake, even if it seems dead.
- If you see a snake, do not make sudden movements and quietly step back. Snake never attack first, but only does it if she has no other choice. Leaning backwards but make sure no other snakes in the back.
- Try to find out what snakes live in the area where you go. Find out what they look like, how dangerous.
First aid for snake bite:
In the snake bite first and foremost try as soon as possible to suck out the poison from the wound, he is constantly spitting. Suck out the poison is perfectly safe, who sucks. In the body the poison will not fall if it did not swallow in large quantities. Even sores in the mouth are not a problem, because the proportion of venom that can enter the blood through them is negligible.
To cut the bite for the better discharge of venom is not recommended. In the field it threatens infection and sometimes inept incisions subsequently lead to greater damage, unless of course you're not a surgeon.
After the extraction of the poison is necessary to limit mobility. Do not go for help themselves, but to send someone after her. If you go yourself, the blood begins to circulate faster and the poison will be distributed throughout the body. It is best to take complete immobility.
If bitten leg, need to bandage it to the other if the hand, then lock in a bent position. It is recommended to drink more. From coffee it is better to refrain, as it has a stimulating effect.
In any case it is impossible to apply a tourniquet! First, it prevents the penetration of the poison into the overlying tissue, and secondly, the wiring, especially if the bites of a Viper and vipers, constricting blood vessels, contributes to further disruption of metabolism in the tissues of the affected limb. The result strengthens the process of necrosis and decay, which is fraught with severe complications.
Cauterization of the bite is considered inefficient because the length of the teeth of the snake sometimes reaches more than a centimeter, and the venom penetrates deep into the tissue. As a result, a superficial cauterization is not able to destroy, and on site burning forms a scab, under which suppuration begins.
The man was bitten by a snake, to drink alcoholic beverages is strictly prohibited. Alcohol is not an antidote, as some believe, but rather complicating the removal of the poison from the body, strengthens its effect.
After carrying out first aid should be required to consult a doctor.
The bites of Scorpions, spiders and other arthropods
Scorpions are found exclusively in the hot zone and warm temperate regions — in the South of Europe (Spain, Italy, in the Crimea, the Caucasus, Central Asia, North and South America and the middle East.
Scorpions are nocturnal, mostly hiding by day under stones, in crevices of rocks.
Not all Scorpions are poisonous or dangerous to humans, but the venom of some species can be lethal, it has a toxic effect on the Central nervous and cardiovascular system, paralyzes the brain, nerves, heart and pectoral muscle. In total there are about 25 species of Scorpions that can be dangerous to humans. There is a very easy way to distinguish poisonous from non-poisonous Scorpion: venomous claws look small compared to the huge stinger on the tail; non-poisonous, enormous claws and a small sting.
First aid for Scorpion bites, other poisonous arthropods, spider:
Immediately cauterize the bite (puncture) hot with a match or other hot object, to destroy the poison. If the needle or the bite occurred in the leg or arm, it is necessary to Immobilise the limb to restrict movement of the whole body to a minimum. It is recommended to drink plenty of liquids (water, tea, milk).
After first aid it is necessary to promptly contact a health facility for administration of an antidote.
Mosquitoes and mosquitoes
Mosquitoes live mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Mosquitoes different from the mosquitoes, because they have a yellowish color, and they are carriers of many diseases. Mosquitoes usually attack at night. The bite is considered harmless, but the parasites in the saliva of mosquitoes infecting people. Many people, even from the simple, infectious bites in the bites there is a severe itching, redness, formation of bumps (allergic reaction). From the bite of mosquitoes, or rather transferred them from the disease annually kills up to 3 million people.
Ordinary mosquitoes, especially in tropical countries, are also carriers of dangerous diseases: malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and encephalitis in some. Only one malaria carried by mosquitoes, causes the death of about two million people annually.
For protection from mosquitoes, gnats and other flying insects very effective protection is clothing. These puppies are often unable to penetrate even through a relatively lightweight fabrics, if they are not tight body.
Another method of struggle – repellent. This typically aerosols, liquids, gels or creams. It is believed that the majority sold our repellents do not perform their tasks and are simply worthless. So a smart idea is to purchase repellents from local production in place of your holiday.
You can also use folk remedies: oil of eucalyptus, citronella, cinnamon, rosemary.
Very effective protection against diseases carried by mosquitoes and mosquitoes are the immunizations (vaccines).
As for allergic reactions to the bites (itching, redness, bumps), it is believed that the best defense against them is to strengthen the immune system. If you stick to this opinion, then after 100 mosquito bites a person has them immunity, and allergic symptoms are reduced or disappear altogether. If you don't trust this theory or you have no desire to wear down the hundreds of mosquito bites, in mild cases, the bites can be quite lubricated with alcohol, iodine, brilliant green solution of baking soda. If you visit Asian countries, we can recommend local balms (but not those that are consumed together with coffee inside), which are perfectly cope with the itching and redness is a Balm Tiger Balm, Bam Serai, Penang Bam, etc. In severe cases, you should take antihistamines (anti-Allergy), and the bite to spread the anti-allergic gel (fenistil gel, for example).
Author: Sergei Mitrofanov
Everyone has their own ways of treatment. :D ...
Well, still not worth trying to protect themselves from all ...
There will not argue. :) ...
So much! It's a separate purse for all needs it :CRY ...
Wouldn't it be easier not to take everything with you and what you need in a hotel buy if in the wilderness? ...
Unfortunately it is not easy, different countries have different restrictions on drugs. You can not find what you need, and this also applies to European countries. Then there is a problem with the language, can you explain what you need? Yes, and over time work too. ...
By the way, Yes, the drugs that to us seem ordinary, can be exotic, or called quite differently. And some of the products at customs can be deleted. ...
Well, I think if I go to USA, I have the same shtatovskih Melaxen will not withdraw. There it is definitely not banned I think. I I so far do not fly, sharp change of time zones is difficult for me. ...
I do not know what Melaxen, but the overall logic is wrong about the country of production. Because cocaine is also produced in Colombia, but this does not mean that you are on the border with him back in vain. Drugs should not be banned in the country, and if they require a prescription (most often narcotic), you must have proof of ownership. And yet, to have somewhere to fly, you must first somewhere to fly, and in the country of departure can also check your products and their legality. ...
Melaxen is a sleeping pill, as I understand it. ...